Parallel Input Serial Output Shift Register Verilog Code ((TOP))
We know that a Flip flop is used to store a single binary data bit but if we want to store multiple data bits then several FFs are required. So a shift register includes a set of FFs used for storing multiple data bits by connecting them serially. The data which is stored in these registers can be shifted by using CLK signals. The shift registers which are used for shifting the data bits to left are known as SLR or Shift left register whereas the data bits that are shifted to the right side are known as SRR or Shift right register. We know that these registers are classified into different types like SISO, SIPO, PISO, and PIPO. So this article discusses an overview of a PISO shift register which is known as a parallel in the serial-out shift register.
Parallel Input Serial Output Shift Register Verilog Code
The shift register which uses parallel input and generates serial output is known as the parallel input serial output shift register or PISO shift register. This shift register works in a reverse way to the SIPO shift register. In this type of shift register, the input data enters a parallel way and comes out serially. So the i/p of the second FF is the o/p of the first flip flop.
In the above-shown PISO shift register circuit, the input data is applied to the input pins of the shift registers from DA to DD at the same time. After that, it is read out from the shift register serially 1-bit at a time from input pins on every CLK cycle. Here, one CLK pulse is enough to load the 4-bit of data but four pulses are required to unload all the four bits.
module Shiftregister_PISO(Clk, Parallel_In,load, Serial_Out);input Clk,load;input [3:0]Parallel_In;output reg Serial_Out;reg [3:0]tmp;always @(posedge Clk)beginif(load)tmp
Shift register are the registers which are used to shift the stored bit in one or both directions. In this section, shift register is implemented which can be used for shifting data in both direction. Further it can be used as parallel to serial converter or serial to parallel converter. Verilog files required for this example are listed below,
Here, 4-bit count (i.e. parallel data) is generated using Mod-12 counter. This data is converted into serial data by Listing 8.5; and sent to Listing 8.6, where data is again converted into parallel and the result (i.e. count) is displayed at output as shown in Listing 8.7. The simulation results are shown in Fig. Fig. 8.5. Lastly, visual verification circuit is shown in Listing 8.8. Note that, empty_tick signal is used as clock for modMCounter (see red line in Fig. :numref:`fig_parallel_and_serial_design`), so that next count will be available when previous conversion is completed. Please read comments for further details.
Design of Parallel In - Serial OUT Shift Register using Behavior Modeling Style -Output Waveform : Parallel IN - Serial OUT Shift RegisterVerilog CODE -//-----------------------------------------------------------------------------//// Title : parallel_in_serial_out// Design : vhdl_upload2// Author : Naresh Singh Dobal// Company : email@example.com// Verilog HDL Programs & Exercise with Naresh Singh Dobal.////-----------------------------------------------------------------------------//// File : Parallel IN - Serial OUT Shift Register.vmodule parallel_in_serial_out ( din ,clk ,reset ,load ,dout );output dout ;reg dout ;input [3:0] din ;wire [3:0] din ;input clk ;wire clk ;input reset ;wire reset ;input load ;wire load ;reg [3:0]temp;always @ (posedge (clk)) begin if (reset) temp
The length of the output from the previous test makes clear that it would be really nice if we could change the whole value of the register in one go. For that we need to add parallel input. Note that this is not strictly needed to make the system work but it will make our lives a lot easier as we run the tests.
I took a look at the kinds of thing that are available in the 74 series of logic chips and came up with the 74195 4-bit right-shift register. It actually offers a bit more than we need since it can shift in both directions and we only need to go to the right. It adds not only a parallel input but also two control inputs and an asynchrnous reset input. It is designed to cascade trivially so I am quite happy to produce the Verilog version of an 8-bit universal register register with four modes
It is fairly easy to add these additional functions to our register to get a parallel/serial register. Here is my first try. Note that I have used a 2-bit mode input instead of separate S1 and S0 inputs.
Shift Registers are used for data storage or for the movement of data and are therefore commonly used inside calculators or computers to store data such as two binary numbers before they are added together, or to convert the data from either a serial to parallel or parallel to serial format. The individual data latches that make up a single shift register are all driven by a common clock ( Clk ) signal making them synchronous devices.
The effect of each clock pulse is to shift the data contents of each stage one place to the right, and this is shown in the following table until the complete data value of 0-0-0-1 is stored in the register. This data value can now be read directly from the outputs of QA to QD.
This shift register is very similar to the SIPO above, except were before the data was read directly in a parallel form from the outputs QA to QD, this time the data is allowed to flow straight through the register and out of the other end. Since there is only one output, the DATA leaves the shift register one bit at a time in a serial pattern, hence the name Serial-in to Serial-Out Shift Register or SISO.
The SISO shift register is one of the simplest of the four configurations as it has only three connections, the serial input (SI) which determines what enters the left hand flip-flop, the serial output (SO) which is taken from the output of the right hand flip-flop and the sequencing clock signal (Clk). The logic circuit diagram below shows a generalized serial-in serial-out shift register.
The Parallel-in to Serial-out shift register acts in the opposite way to the serial-in to parallel-out one above. The data is loaded into the register in a parallel format in which all the data bits enter their inputs simultaneously, to the parallel input pins PA to PD of the register. The data is then read out sequentially in the normal shift-right mode from the register at Q representing the data present at PA to PD.
This data is outputted one bit at a time on each clock cycle in a serial format. It is important to note that with this type of data register a clock pulse is not required to parallel load the register as it is already present, but four clock pulses are required to unload the data.
The final mode of operation is the Parallel-in to Parallel-out Shift Register. This type of shift register also acts as a temporary storage device or as a time delay device similar to the SISO configuration above. The data is presented in a parallel format to the parallel input pins PA to PD and then transferred together directly to their respective output pins QA to QD by the same clock pulse. Then one clock pulse loads and unloads the register. This arrangement for parallel loading and unloading is shown below.
The PIPO shift register is the simplest of the four configurations as it has only three connections, the parallel input (PI) which determines what enters the flip-flop, the parallel output (PO) and the sequencing clock signal (Clk).
Similar to the Serial-in to Serial-out shift register, this type of register also acts as a temporary storage device or as a time delay device, with the amount of time delay being varied by the frequency of the clock pulses. Also, in this type of register there are no interconnections between the individual flip-flops since no serial shifting of the data is required.
These universal shift registers can perform any combination of parallel and serial input to output operations but require additional inputs to specify desired function and to pre-load and reset the device. A commonly used universal shift register is the TTL 74LS194 as shown below.
Universal shift registers are very useful digital devices. They can be configured to respond to operations that require some form of temporary memory storage or for the delay of information such as the SISO or PIPO configuration modes or transfer data from one point to another in either a serial or parallel format. Universal shift registers are frequently used in arithmetic operations to shift data to the left or right for multiplication or division.
In the next tutorial about Sequential Logic Circuits, we will look at what happens when the output of the last flip-flop in a shift register is connected directly back to the input of the first flip-flop producing a closed loop circuit that constantly recirculates the data around the loop. This then produces another type of sequential logic circuit called a Ring Counter that are used as decade counters and dividers.
The shift register, which allows serial input (one bit after the other through a single data line) and produces a serial output is known as Serial-In Serial-Out shift register. Since there is only one output, the data leaves the shift register one bit at a time in a serial pattern, thus the name Serial-In Serial-Out Shift Register.
The logic circuit given below shows a serial-in serial-out shift register. The circuit consists of four D flip-flops which are connected in a serial manner. All these flip-flops are synchronous with each other since the same clock signal is applied to each flip flop.