Arabic Grammar Nahw And Sarf Pdf 26
Arabic Grammar Nahw and Sarf PDF 26
Arabic grammar is divided into two main branches: nahw and sarf. Nahw deals with the syntax and morphology of words, while sarf deals with the etymology and derivation of words. Both branches are essential for understanding the structure and meaning of Arabic sentences.
arabic grammar nahw and sarf pdf 26
In this article, we will introduce some of the basic concepts and rules of nahw and sarf, and provide some links to PDF books that can help you learn more about them.
What is Nahw?
Nahw (نحو) is the Arabic word for grammar, which literally means "the way" or "the direction". Nahw studies how words are arranged and modified in a sentence to convey the intended meaning. Nahw covers topics such as:
The types of words in Arabic: nouns (اسم), verbs (فعل), and particles (حرف).
The grammatical states of nouns: nominative (مرفوع), accusative (منصوب), and genitive (مجرور).
The grammatical functions of nouns: subject (فاعل), object (مفعول به), predicate (خبر), etc.
The grammatical cases of verbs: past tense (ماضي), present tense (مضارع), imperative (أمر), etc.
The grammatical moods of verbs: indicative (مرفوع), subjunctive (منصوب), jussive (مجزوم), etc.
The grammatical aspects of verbs: perfective (كامل), imperfective (ناقص), active (معلوم), passive (مجهول), etc.
The grammatical numbers of words: singular (مفرد), dual (مثنى), plural (جمع).
The grammatical genders of words: masculine (مذكر) and feminine (مؤنث).
The grammatical agreement of words: in number, gender, and case.
The types of sentences in Arabic: nominal (جملة اسمية) and verbal (جملة فعلية).
The types of clauses in Arabic: independent (جزء مستقل) and dependent (جزء متعلق).
The types of conjunctions in Arabic: coordinating (عطف) and subordinating (صلة).
Nahw also explains the rules and exceptions that govern the usage of these grammatical elements, such as:
The declension of nouns according to their endings: tanween (تنوين), alif-lam (ال), hamzatul-wasl (همزة الوصل), etc.
The conjugation of verbs according to their patterns: sound (صحيح), weak (ضعيف), doubled (مثال), hamzated (همزي), etc.
The derivation of nouns from verbs: masdar (مصدر), agent noun (فاعل), object noun (مفعول), etc.
The derivation of verbs from nouns: causative verb (فعّل), passive verb (انفعل), reciprocal verb (تفاعل), etc.
The use of particles to modify the meaning or function of words: negation particles (نافية), interrogation particles (استفهامية), emphasis particles (توكيدية), etc.
What is Sarf?
Sarf (صرف) is the Arabic word for morphology, which literally means "the change" or "the alteration". Sarf studies how words are formed and derived from their roots, which are usually composed of three consonants. Sarf covers topics such as:
The types of roots in Arabic: triliteral (ثلاثي الحروف), quadriliteral (رباعي الحروف), quinqueliteral (خماسي الحروف), etc.
The types of patterns in Arabic: noun patterns (وزن الاسماء), verb patterns (وزن الافعال), particle patterns (وزن الحروف), etc.
The types of scales in Arabic: basic scale (المبني الأصلي), augmented scale (المبني المزيد), diminished scale (المبني المقلوب), etc.
The types of measures in Arabic: first measure (المفعول الأول), second measure (المفعول الثاني), third measure (المفعول الثالث), etc.
The types of derivations in Arabic: noun derivation (صرف الاسماء), verb derivation (صرف الافعال), particle derivation (صرف الحروف), etc.
Sarf also explains the rules and exceptions that govern the formation and derivation of words, such as:
The changes in the root letters according to their positions: first letter (الحرف الأول), second letter (الحرف الثاني), third letter (الحرف الثالث), etc.
The changes in the root letters according to their types: strong letter (حرف قوي), weak letter (حرف ضعيف), hamzated letter (حرف همزي), etc.
The changes in the pattern letters according to their types: fixed letter (حرف ثابت), movable letter (حرف متحرك), extra letter (حرف زائد), etc.
The changes in the vowels according to the grammatical state, function, number, gender, and mood of words.
The use of prefixes and suffixes to indicate the person, number, gender, and case of words.
Why Learn Nahw and Sarf?
Learning nahw and sarf is essential for anyone who wants to master the Arabic language, especially its classical and Quranic forms. Nahw and sarf can help you:
Understand the meaning and structure of Arabic sentences, whether written or spoken.
Analyze the words and their relations in a sentence, and identify their grammatical roles and functions.
Recognize the root and pattern of words, and derive new words from them.
Apply the rules and exceptions of grammar and morphology to produce correct and eloquent sentences.
Appreciate the beauty and richness of the Arabic language, and its rhetorical devices and stylistic features.
Access the vast literature and heritage of the Arabic language, especially the Quran and its sciences.
Where to Find Nahw and Sarf PDF Books?
If you are interested in learning more about nahw and sarf, you can find many PDF books online that can teach you the basics and advanced topics of these branches. Here are some links to some of the most popular and useful books on nahw and sarf:
[Arabic Nahw & Sarf Reference Books]: This is a collection of PDF books on nahw and sarf in Arabic, which can serve as a quick study tool for learners. The books include:
[Al-Ajrumiyyah](^1^#page/n3/mode/2up): This is one of the most famous and concise books on nahw, written by Ibn Ajurum (d. 1323 CE). It covers the basic topics of nahw in a simple and clear way, using examples from the Quran and poetry.
[Qatr al-Nada](^1^#page/n25/mode/2up): This is another famous book on nahw, written by Ibn Hisham al-Ansari (d. 761 AH). It is a commentary on Al-Ajrumiyyah, explaining its rules and terms in more detail, and adding more examples and exercises.
[Sharh Ibn Aqeel](^1^#page/n49/mode/2up): This is a comprehensive book on nahw, written by Ibn Aqeel al-Baghdadi (d. 1119 AH). It is a commentary on Alfiyyah ibn Malik, which is a thousand-line poem that summarizes all the topics of nahw. It is considered one of the most authoritative and detailed books on nahw.
[Matn al-Sarf](^1^#page/n73/mode/2up): This is a brief book on sarf , written by Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Sawi (d. 1241 AH). It covers the basic topics of sarf in a simple and clear way, using examples from the Quran and poetry.
[Al-Muqaddimah al-Jazariyyah](^1^#page/n87/mode/2up): This is a famous book on sarf and tajweed, written by Ibn al-Jazari (d. 833 AH). It explains the rules and principles of sarf and tajweed in a poetic form, using rhymed couplets.
[Arabic Grammar Nahw and Sarf PDF]: This is a PDF book on nahw and sarf in English, which can serve as a beginner's guide for learners. The book includes:
An introduction to the Arabic language and its script.
A summary of the main topics of nahw and sarf, with examples and exercises.
A glossary of the key terms and concepts of nahw and sarf.
A list of the most common roots and patterns in Arabic.
[Arabic Grammar Nahw Sarf Made Easy]: This is a PDF book on nahw and sarf in Urdu, which can serve as an easy reference for learners. The book includes:
A brief overview of the Arabic language and its script.
A concise explanation of the main topics of nahw and sarf, with examples and exercises.
A table of the most common roots and patterns in Arabic.
These are some of the best nahw and sarf PDF books that you can find online. We hope that they will help you learn and improve your Arabic grammar skills. If you have any questions or feedback, please feel free to contact us. Thank you for reading!